Friday, May 22, 2020

Essay Eudaimonia and Human Flourishing - 1845 Words

Eudaimonia and Human Flourishing Aristotle describes three types of life in his search for human flourishing: lives of gratification, politics, and contemplation. He contends that there is a single Idea of Good that all men seek, and he finds that happiness, or eudaimonia, best fits his criteria. Aristotle investigates the human purpose to find how happiness is best achieved, and finds that a life of activity and contemplation satisfies our purpose, achieving the most complete happiness in us. Aristotle is correct regarding the necessity of activity, but restricts the theory to only the life of study. We will reject this restriction, and instead allow any life of virtue and productivity to substitute for Aristotle’s life of study.†¦show more content†¦Postulate 1: We have a gut feeling that some desires are not empty and futile. Granting him this postulate, we allow his conclusion 5. that there are some things we choose for their own sake. This satisfies Idea of Good Claim 1). Aristotle’s criteria for the Idea of Good are self-sufficiency and completeness. Regarding these criteria he says, â€Å"not all ends are complete. But the best good is apparently something complete. And so, if only one end is complete, the good we are looking for will be this end; if more ends than one are complete, it will be the most complete of these ends.† (Irwin 7) Aristotle has not given good reason why there must be only one end from which all actions are a means, rather than several such ends. At this point I will not contend with Aristotle if he can posit this singularity and avoid contradiction further into his theory. Postulate 2: There is only one Idea of Good. Aristotle explores and finds happiness to be the best fit for these criteria of the Idea of Good. We must pause for a moment to clarify the translation of eudaimonia, translated to â€Å"happiness† in the text. In Greek, eudaimonia translates to â€Å"living well† or â€Å"doing well†, â€Å"Happiness is the complete end [†¦] [one’s] complete happiness depends on himself, and not on external conditions.† (Irwin 333) Regarding happiness as the single Idea of Good Aristotle says, â€Å"Now happiness, more than anything else, seems complete withoutShow MoreRelated Aristotle and the Doctrine of the Mean Essay1436 Words   |  6 PagesDoctrine of the Mean Aristotle seeks flourishing happiness in life. He believes that this can be achieved for each individual through the embracement of virtues. Aristotle believes that virtues are the mean of two vices. This is the basis of the Aristotelian â€Å"Doctrine of the Mean†. This paper will explore the basis of the Doctrine of the Mean, its connections to Eudaimonia, and its success or lack thereof. Eudaimonia is a Greek word whose meaning can be translated severalRead MoreAristotle Is A Good Life?1211 Words   |  5 Pagesconcept of â€Å"eudaimonia.† Simply defined, eudaimonia is, â€Å"happiness or flourishing.† However, Aristotle defined eudaimonia a little bit differently, he claimed that eudaimonia was reaching one s ultimate human good by living well and completing one’s ultimate goals (flourishing). The concept of Eudaimonia is thought to have been first alluded to in Aristotle’s work, â€Å"Nichomachean Ethics.† It was then that Aristotle began to question the meaning of life. What is the purpose of human existence?Read MoreThe Purpose Of Friendship1304 Words   |  6 Pagessignificant value in friendship and find it to be beneficial to the flourishing of oneself for man is a social creature, but as many years pass, only a few contemporary philosophers focus their work on friendship. In this paper, I will establish what friendship is, explain the various forms of friendship, interpret the value and benefits of having friendships and, finally, I will argue why friendship is necessary for eudaimonia. To first understand the importance of friendship, we must establishRead MoreThe Ethics Of Virtue Ethics1502 Words   |  7 Pagesdo in the same situation. Eudaimonia is a very important term in virtue ethics, as that is what one is searching for. Eudaimonia can lightly be translated as happiness, but it goes much deeper than that. Another way to put it would to be happiness from inside, that comes from being a certain kind of person. Like people say, money cannot buy happiness, virtue ethics agress. Eudaimonia comes from leading a virtuous life. It can be best translated as human flourishing. Virtues are good character traitsRead MoreThe Role Of Happiness . â€Å"Happiness Is The Meaning And The1326 Words   |  6 Pagesthe purpose of life, the whole aim and end of human existence† (Aristotle). In ethics, we study the place of morality in a social construct, where happiness is the core of ethical concern. Happiness for the individual, happiness for the majority, happiness for nature. What is the key to a happy life? Aristotle believes the key is eudaimonia, or a state of having a good soul or being in a contented state of bein g healthy, happy, and prosperous. Eudaimonia is often used to refer to the right actionsRead MoreAristotle s The Best Benefits For Human Beings946 Words   |  4 Pagesits own function, including human beings. By fulfilling that function in an excellent way, one can achieve Eudaimonia. The idea later becomes to be known as the Ergon argument. This paper is intending to argue for the ergon argument. Aristotle enquires the best benefits for human beings. First, he starts by saying that everything in natures has its own function. For example: the hammer’s function is to hammer the nail, or a tree’s function is to grow effectively. Human being is not an exception.Read MoreAristotle Virtue Ethics Summary1075 Words   |  5 PagesAristotle outlined his theory of Virtue Ethics in his book Nicomachean Ethics. Aristotle focused his idea of ethics on agents rather than acts. His main idea is focused on the idea of human character- how can you be a better person? In fact, Aristotle once said: â€Å"For we are enquiring not in order to know what virtue is, but in order to become good, since otherwise our enquiry would be of no use.† Aristotle is given the credit for developing the idea of virtue ethics, but many of Platos cardinalRead MoreWhat Is Human Flourishing And Why Should We Care? Essay1874 Words   |  8 PagesWhat is human flourishing and why should we care ? We, as humans in a modern culture, have lost touch with the art of human flourishing which was once described to us by Aristotle. Modern culture humans are no longer practicing human flourishing because society considers it to be too time consuming. There is a phenomenon in our current society that humans need to be busy to be successful. However, this is not the case. Without human flourishing, human advancement is hindered. Human flourishingRead MoreAristotles Theory of the Good Life968 Words   |  4 PagesAristotle develops a theory of the good life, also known as eudaimonia, for humans. Eudaimonia is perhaps best translated as flourishing or living well and doing well. Therefore, when Aristotle addresses the good life as the happy life, he does not mean that the good life is simply one of feeling happy or amused. Rather, the good life for a person is the active life of functioning well in those ways that are essential and unique to humans. Aristotle invites the fact that if we have happiness, weRead MoreThe Well Being Aristotle And Human Happiness1000 Words   |  4 PagesOur Well-Being: Aristotle and Human Happiness What is the purpose of a human being? â€Å"Happiness is the meaning and the purpose of life, the whole aim and end of human existence† (Nicomachean Ethics). When one thinks about happiness, these words said by Aristotle allow us to understand its significance. Through Aristotle’s teachings, he made it clear that the point of life is to be happy. Aristotle uses the word happiness as having to do with a person’s life as a whole, and not as the constant desire

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Themes, Motifs and Symbols in A Midsummer Nights Dream Essay

Throughout the play, â€Å"A Midsummer Night’s Dream, written by William Shakespeare, are several themes, motifs, and symbols. Dreams are a reoccurring theme. Dreams are connected to the unexplainable and mysterious events, occurring in the woods. â€Å"A Midsummer Night’s Dream† can be compared to â€Å"The Tempest†, also written by Shakespeare, because it contains the same theme of dreams- â€Å"That, if I then had waked after long sleep, / Will make me sleep again: and then, in dreaming† (3.2. 139- 140, Caliban) Contrast of appearances verses reality is a common motif throughout the play. It is leading the lovers into believing that the fantasies, which they are experiencing are real, even though they are extremely†¦show more content†¦what visions have I seen!\ Methought I was enamourd of an ass.† (4.1. 63-64). Titania is uncertain whether her vision is a dream or reality, because dreams are soon forgotten, while Titania’s vision is conspicuously detailed and memorable. In act five, scene two, at the end of the play, Puck also is desiring for the audience to view the play as a vision, which is appearing, but is no more clear than a dream- â€Å"While these visions did appear./And this weak and idle theme,/ No more yielding but a dream,† (5.2. 47-49) There is much confusion distinguishing reality from dreams. Therefore, dreams are an important and reoccurring theme, throughout the play. A frequently occurring motif, throughout the play, is contrast between appearances verses reality. The flower’s love juice is causing lovers to blindly fall in love, with the first person they lay their eyes on, after waking up. In act three of the play, Titania is falling in love with the donkey headed, Bottom- â€Å"On the first view, to say, to swear, I love thee† (3.1. 117). In act two, Lysander is under the flower’s love spell, and his true love for Hermia, is being transformed into false love for Helena. Lysander has an unrealistic fantasy of Helena, and his fantasy of Hermia is drastically worsening- â€Å"Get you gone, you dwarf; /You minimus, of hindring knot-grass made;/ You bead, you acorn.† (3.2. 362-364). The love spell is causing unrealisticShow MoreRelatedThe Theme of Love in A Midsummer Nights Dream by William Shakespeare1563 Words   |  7 PagesThe Theme of Love in A Midsummer Nights Dream by William Shakespeare In A Midsummer Nights Dream, Shakespeare presents us with multiple types of love by using numerous couples in various different situations. For example: Doting loves, the love induced by Oberons potion and in some aspects, Lysander and Hermias love for each other; there are true loves: Oberon and Titania, Lysander and Hermia (for the first half at least, as Lysanders love switches to Helena temporarily)Read MoreContext Taming of the Shrew1767 Words   |  8 PagesThe Taming of the Shrew is one of Shakespeare’s earliest comedies, and it shares many essential characteristics with his other romantic comedies, such as Much Ado About Nothing and A Midsummer Night’s Dream. These characteristics include light-hearted and slapstick humor, disguises and deception, and a happy ending in which most of the characters come out satisfied. The light-heartedness of these romantic comedies contrasts sharply with the darker humor and deeper characterization of Shakespeare’sRead MoreThe Theme Of Homo Eroticism Within The Play As You Like It And How It Differs From Various Other3688 Words   |  15 Pages Within this analysis, I will inquire into the theme of homo-eroticism within the play As You Like It and how it differs from various other plays written by Shakespeare and elaborate on how ground-breaking this play was during the time it was written and when it was performed, the differences in social constructs between then and now the differing views of society in the time it was written and the present day. As You Like Its first performance was in London in 1740, a time when popular literature

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Mercury Footwear Questions Free Essays

Among the first companies to offer fashionable walking, hulking and boating footwear. Its mother company decided to extend the brand by creating complementary line of apparel. Because of the poor performance, it was decided to sold. We will write a custom essay sample on Mercury Footwear Questions or any similar topic only for you Order Now Style Logo is marked with prosperous, active and fashion-conscious lifestyle. Its main customers are not interest in its apparel. Financial performance Among the most profitable firms. Had poor performance after acquisition by WAC. Revenue contribution 42% of revenue from athletic shoes and balance from casual footwear. Revenue and operating Income were 470. Million and 60. 4 million In 2006. Revenue and EBITDA were 431. 1 million and 518 million.. Products Athletic shoes developed from high-performance footwear to athletic fashion wear. Four main segments: men’s and women’s athletic and casual footwear. In order to emphasizing individual products, it began to monitor styles and images from global culture Focus on smaller portfolio of classic products with longer lifestyles and could maintain simple production and supply chains. Sales channels Mainly sold in department stores, specialty retailers, wholesalers and independent distributors. Small percentage is sold through website. Department stores, specialty stores, catalogs, discount retailers and internet. Inventory management Good at inventory management in the industry. Inventory management performance is worse than the average level. Outsource Outsource manufacture in China. Outsource main materials in foreign suppliers. Advantages Disadvantages It takes small size as its competitive disadvantages. And it faced with some problems in the consolidation of manufacturers. Price cuts and promotion in apparel line hurts operating margins but helped to the growth in sales. Sales growth is lower than the average because of there is little discount in price. We could learn that managers of GAG want to enlarge the scale of its company and gain larger market share because of the stable profit margin. And since the revenue is almost the same, it is a good choice to merge with Mercury, which means that revenue would be doubled after acquisition. And these two companies have some similar factors, such as : (1) They could use the same sale channels after acquisition, and internet channel could be enlarged. (2) They could combine manufacturers to get a powerful bargain in suppliers. 3) The product segments are almost the same, which means that there should be little work to do after acquisition in product adjustment. (4) Thanks to the profitable ability of GAG, it is much easier to make a better financial performance of Mercury. (5) It is good for them to increase the performance of inventory management if they merge together. 6) Although their target customers are different, especially in ages, which means that style and brand are different in the very beginning, this factor could turn into an advantage for the new company could have a fully segment of customers with wider age ranges. Therefore, take into above factors into account; we think that Mercury should be an appropriate target for GAG. 2. Review the projections formul ated by Little. Are they appropriate? How would In the case, we could find that Little used historical averages to assume the overhead-to-revenue ratio. However, historical data is usually useless for future. Some studies found there is little evidence that firms grew fast continued to grow fast in the next period. And sometimes there are even negative correlations between growth rates in the two periods. Besides, smaller firms tend to be more volatile than others, which we could find the same characteristics in these two firms we are talking about. And Just as we mentioned in the question 1, revenue may be doubled after acquisition, it Just fits the theory that it is difficult to maintain historical growth rates as firms double or triple in size. Therefore, based on the above analysis, we think that it is not reasonable to use historical data for future projections. And sometimes, analyst should be better than the historical growth. Considering that there are five main channels for analyst forecasts: firm-specific information, macroeconomic information, information revealed by competitors on future prospects, private information about the firm and public information other than earnings, we think Little could find more information from above channels to get more accurate assumption. And since performance of Mercury is poorer than the average of the industry, it is better to use industry average level for the benchmarking of Mercury when predicting, instead of a discount rate of GAG for example. And from the comparison of 2007 to 2006, we can find Ileitis’s forecast need great input from GAG to support the development of Mercury, whether he has taken this into consideration? And he estimate debt/equity ratio remains the same as GAG, that is also unreasonable, for it is not possible to change that in short period. How to cite Mercury Footwear Questions, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

Wrigleys Innovation in Chinas Confectionary Market

The Role of Product Innovation for Wrigley’s in the Asian Market Wrigley is operating in a highly competitive market. Although it stands out as the most innovative firm and the market leader in this industry, other players are posing real threat to its progress in this market. For this reason therefore, product innovation is the only way through which this firm can manage the competition. Product innovation plays a very important role to Wrigley in the Asian markets.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Wrigley’s Innovation in China’s Confectionary Market specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When Wrigley ventured into the Chinese market, it realized that even though there was a market gap that it could easily fit in, especially given the large population in this country, there were other local firms that had mastered the art of trade in this industry and carefully guarded their market share. There wa s only one way of managing market competition and standing out as the firm to beat in this market. Given the attractive population of this region, this firm realized that it had to be one of the leading firms in order to reap maximally in this market. Product innovation therefore had a pivotal role in the strategy of this firm to capture new markets. The Asian market is very huge. China alone is home to about 1.3 billion people, which is five times that of the United States. However, not everyone appreciates the confectionaries that are manufactured by Wrigley’s. For instance, chocolate had not been popular among the Chinese and countries in this region as it is in America and parts of Europe. For this reason therefore, the firm had the responsibility to make this product attractive. Product innovation has therefore been so important in creating market where it never existed before. This innovation is also important in ensuring that Wrigley’s remain ahead of other comp etitors. Analysis of Wrigley’s Products and Innovations on the Basis of their Newness to the Company and the Market Wrigley’s innovativeness can be traced back to its inception in the late 1890s. The founder of this company, William Wrigley Jr. was a very innovative man. At an age of 29, he started a business of selling soaps. With the need to ensure that the sales of his soaps grow, it introduced an incentive of backing powder to its attractive customers. He had to look for a different incentive and decided on chewing gum as the incentive. He was keen to realize that chewing gum had even greater potential and soon switched to manufacturing of chewing gum. Through innovation, the soap seller soon transformed to be a chewing gum manufacturer. This has been the trend of this firm.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Types of New Products Since those early years of i ts inception, Wrigley maintained innovation by producing new products quite often. Initially, it was selling soaps. Its first new product was baking powder. This new product was not new to the market. There were many other business units actively selling this product in the market. However, this product was completely new to the firm. When the firm started selling chewing gum, the product was new to the firm, but not to the market because there were other firms producing the same. However, when the firm selected this industry as its preferred line of business, it started producing new brands of the chewing gum like Lotta, Vassar, and Spearmint. These products were new, both to the firm and to the market. The firm has continued to introduce more brands new to the firm and to business. Such products as Juicy Fruit Gum, Freedent and Big Red were a big success in the market because they were new to the market, just as they were to the firm. Winterfresh, Airwave Honey, Lemon, and Juicy F ruits were similarly new products that were very successful. These products were new to the firm and to the market. Implications of Repositioning from Existing Markets to New Markets Product repositioning can be as successful as it can be dangerous. Repositioning a product in the market may be very important, especially when the current image is not very attractive. Wrigley’s has moved from the American market to the Chinese market. These two markets are completely different. The socio-cultural factors that influence buying behavior of the Chinese markets are very different from that in the United States. Product positioning of this firm in China should be made different from the way it is done in the United States. This is exactly what this firm has done, especially in the markets in China, Taiwan and other countries in this region. While the American markets were receptive to the chocolate, the Chinese markets were more receptive to the sugar products. This firm therefore r ealized that it had to reposition its products to reflect the local requirements in China. The implication of this move was a huge sale in the Chinese markets. The products gained acceptance in the local market as the products meet their requirement of the locals. It was viewed as a local product with the potential to meet local needs. However, upon a careful review of the market, this firm realized that the Chinese market was changing its opinion on chocolates. It therefore changed the strategy. It developed a new line of products that were sensitive to the changing market needs and repositioned them to reflect this change. As a result, Wrigley’s has managed to remain the dominant firm in this market.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Wrigley’s Innovation in China’s Confectionary Market specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Implications of Developing and Launching Incremental Innovations The firm has come to realize that the market is very competitive and as stated above, has embraced innovation and creativity. The implication of this is evidenced in both the US markets and the market in China. By developing and launching incremental innovation, this firm has been in a position to keep its market lead. It has managed to stay ahead of competition. It has continued to offer the market new products that satisfy their needs in a better way. For this reason, it has retained a pool of loyal customers, making them blind to the products of the competitors. Incremental innovation to their existing products has turned some of the customers into evangelists, making this firm even stronger in the Chinese market. This strategy has also enabled the existing products have a longer life cycle in the market, making them more profitable to the firm. Implications of Developing and Launching ‘really new’ innovations Developing and launching of ‘really innovations has also ha d a positive implication to Wrigley’s in this new market. When this firm started to develop the chewing gums, it was a completely new market. Although it was new to the firm and the prospects of success was based on chance, the firm managed to penetrate the market with this new products and this has landed it its current position as the leading manufacturer of the confectionaries in the world. The new products created new markets that have remained very loyal to the firm hence its main strength. The Extent to Which Wrigley’s Innovation Strategy Has Been a Success in China Wrigley’s in China is a success story given the growth in the market share. Wrigley considered the Chinese market as the most attractive after the US market. Given the fact that the market was still growing, Wrigley considered it even more attractive. However, it had to maintain its innovative strategy in order to be a success in this market. Because of the innovative strategy of this firm, the market share of this firm has grown from about 46 percent in 2001, to over 80 percent in 2005. This growth is estimated to increase within the coming years due to the innovation strategy of this firm within this market. Currently, Wrigley’s is considered as the leader in retail penetration in this industry and in consumer goods in general in China. The firm has managed to reach a 2.2 million distribution points within the country. The distribution of Wrigley was estimated to cover over 300 cities in China alone. This is estimated to be about 90 percent retail penetration. Wrigley’s continuous innovation has made the firm sustain strong consumer preference.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Opportunities and Challenges Faced by Wrigley The path taken by Wrigley’s has been marred by opportunities and threats in equal measure. The firm’s strengths and weaknesses have played off to make the firm reach its current market position. To analyze carefully the opportunities and threats of this firm, a SWOT analysis would be used to examine the internal and external environments of this firm. External Environment Within the external environment, the firm has met a number of opportunities that has made it reach its current glorious position. The first opportunity that availed itself to this firm was the apparent gap that existed in China in the Confectionary market. The firm made good use of this opportunity and has firmly established itself in this market. Another very strong opportunity that availed itself to this firm was the size of the market in China. The market was five times larger than the US market. This implied that it had a larger potential for this firm . The emerging markets and submarkets in this region were also making the region potential as a market of this firm. The firm was quick to meet the unmet needs of this market at good time, hence its success. However, the firm also faced some potential challenges that hampered its growth within the Chinese market. There is a considerably competition in this market. There are firms producing products that are close substitutes of the products of Wrigley’s. They pose potential threat in the market for this market. There is no barrier to market entry, making this market open to competitors. This therefore means that there is a possibility of new entrants into this market that can pose further threat to this firm. Internal Environment The main strength of this firm is its innovativeness. This has enabled it protect its market share in this region. The firm has developed a very strong brand name in the market that has increased its profitability. However, some weaknesses of this fi rm have made it lose a portion of its market share. Failure of some of its products has caused the firm both financially and in relation to time. Innovation Strategy for the Next 5-10 Years To be in a position to manage market competition for the next five to ten years, the firm must retain its innovativeness within this industry. It must be in a position to maintain the satisfaction of the customers in the market through development of new products in the market. The existing products should also be developed to extend their life cycle in the market. Above all, the firm should always be sensitive to the needs of the market and respond to the changes in tastes and preferences of customers. New Product Development to Capture a Segment of the Market The market is getting increasingly fierce. More players are coming in with new strategies in the market and Wrigley’s must develop a strategy that would enable sustain itself within this market. Based on opportunities and threats in this industry within China, this firm must consider diversifying its products to go beyond the gum products. The chewing gums are very profitable and they have defined the firm’s position in the market. However, many firms are coming up with similar products, making it very difficult for the firm to maintain one line of production. The Chinese are getting increasingly conscious about their health. They currently prefer products that have been approved as health sensitive. The firm must therefore consider producing products that are sugar free as many health experts have argued that sugary products are not good to health. The firm should develop sugar free gum and target the middle class market within this country. This market segment is very sensitive on issues pertaining to their health. Although they value the chewing gums, they put more emphasis on their health other than on the product. This report on Wrigley’s Innovation in China’s Confectionary Market was written and submitted by user Grace Stevens to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

The Changing Faces of Present and Presentation

The Changing Faces of Present and Presentation The Changing Faces of Present and Presentation The Changing Faces of Present and Presentation By Maeve Maddox Present belongs to a group of English words that, with a shift in pronunciation, may be either noun or verb. present [prÄ•zÉ™nt] n. (accent on the first syllable) a gift present [prÄ ­-zÄ•nt] v. (accent on the second syllable) to introduce, to give an award In an article about the 2009 Academy Awards, I noticed a third use of present that may be in the process of entering the language: Best Present: Copresenters Steve Martin and Tina Fey, whove been funny together on TV and film, delivered a hilarious tribute to writers that made us want to see them make another movie together. Erik Pedersen, E! Online Here Pedersen is using present as a shortened form of presentation. In the way of the web, Pedersens words have been copied by numerous bloggers and it may only be a matter of time before we hear present [prÄ“zÄ•nt] for presentation the way we hear invite [Ä ­n-vÄ «t] in place of invitation. presentation [prÄ•zÉ™n-tÄ shÉ™n] n. the act of presenting A presentation can be a gift, or it can be something like a lecture or a slide presentation. Evidence that the cropped form present for presentation may have already caught on with some users appears in these headlines used to introduce slide shows on the web: OM slide Present SHN Membership Slide Present 2006 In looking for examples of this new, unlovely use of present, I came across a (to me) new use of presentation. When used on a wedding invitation, the expression presentation preferred, means forget the gifts, we want cash. This comment from a wedding forum shows that not eveyone is comfortable with this use of presentation: My soon-to-be mother in-law is really against presentation, but its our wedding, not hers ! I guess when we showed her the sample of the invite, she didnt notice the presentation on it. Ah, the accelerate of linguistic change! Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:What is the Difference Between "These" and "Those"?Capitalization Rules for Names of Historical Periods and MovementsCharles's Pen and Jesus' Name

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Definitions and Examples of Orthography

Definitions and Examples of Orthography Orthography is the practice or study of correct spelling according to established usage. In a broader sense,  orthography can refer to the study of letters and how they are used to express sounds and form words.  Prosody  and  orthography are not parts of  grammar,  Ben Johnson  wrote in the early 1600s, but diffused like the blood and spirits through the whole. Adjective: orthographic or orthographical.Etymology:  From the Greek, correct writingPronunciation:  or-THOG-rah-fee Examples and Observations Mark TwainSome people have an idea that correct spelling can be taught, and taught to anybody. That is a mistake. The spelling faculty is born in man, like poetry, music and art. It is a gift; a talent. People who have this talent in a high degree need only to see a word once in print and it is forever photographed upon their memory. They cannot forget it. People who havent it must be content to spell more or less like thunder, and expect to splinter the dictionary wherever their orthographic lightning happens to strike. Graphology Tom McArthurIn linguistics... the name for the study of the writing system is graphology, a level of language parallel to phonology. The earlier, prescriptive sense of the term [orthography] continues to be used, but the later, more neutral sense is common among scholars of language. Spelling Variations David CrystalEven in orthography, the area that is often said to have become completely standardized by 1800, we find a remarkable amount of variation, as Sidney Greenbaum established in 1986. He carried out a survey to estimate how much spelling variation there was in Modern English... He found an average of three variant forms per page [of a dictionary]296 entries... As a percentage of all the entries in the dictionary, this was a remarkable 5.6 per cent. Ben Franklins Warning David Wolman[Benjamin] Franklin felt that the ever-widening gap between spelling and pronunciation was leading the language down a denigrating path toward a logographic orthography, in which symbols represent whole words, not a system for producing sound units, as in c-a-t. He considered languages like Mandarin ghastly for their memorization requirements, an old manner of Writing that was less sophisticated than a phonological alphabet. If we go on as we have done a few Centuries longer, Franklin warned, our words will gradually cease to express sounds, they will only stand for things. Spelling Reform Joseph BergerLike such ideological forefathers as George Bernard Shaw, Theodore Roosevelt and Andrew Carnegie, [Edward Rondthaler] wants to clear up the whims of spelling by adopting a more phonetic version of English, one where words are written as they sound and pronounced as they are written...The kee to ending English iliterasy is to adopt a speling thats riten as it sounds, he writes in his fashion. The Lighter Side of Orthography If youve grown weary of hearing that you need to improve your spelling skills, consider these options: Boost your self-esteem and baffle your acquaintances by insisting that youre a specialist in cacography. You dont need to tell them that cacography is nothing more than a fancy term for bad spelling.Blame the English language. Compared to German, for instance, English spelling is unquestionably haphazard, eccentric, and sometimes downright perverse. Need an example? In English, cough, plough, rough, and through dont rhyme. (Of course, despite all the vagaries of English spelling, millions of people have figured out the system.)Work on improving your spelling skills. Seriouslyspelling matters. According to a report from BBC News, three-quarters of employers say that they would be put off by a job candidate who had poor spelling or grammar.Remind your teachers and friends that not all great writers have been great spellers, and then as evidence point them to Shakespeares Sonnet 138 in its original form: When my love sweares that she is made of truth,I do beleeve her, though I know she lyes,That she might thinke me some untuterd youth,Unlearned in the worlds false subtilties. But be careful: some wiseacre might remind you that Shakespeare wrote in an era before English spelling had been standardized. In fact, Will died 40 years before the publication of the first comprehensive English dictionary.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Management of chronic pain control in cancer Essay

Management of chronic pain control in cancer - Essay Example In one year more than 500 people in 100,000 will be diagnosed with cancer within the United Kingdom (Cancer Research UK, 2012). The same site states that the survival rate for all cancers has now reached 50%, with some types having a very high 5 year survival rate of 95% and with women generally having a higher survival rate than men. Treatment will have included such things as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, all of which play their part in either removing or destroying cancer cells. Such treatment though has its costs and it is a normal experience to have some pain after cancer surgery. Most of this will fade after time, but in some cases pain can persist for months or years, especially if nerves are damaged. After radiation therapy there may be pain which eventually resolves. In some cases though pain can develop a long way down the line. Chemotherapy can also result in pain and numbness. Some people may also find that they are liable to migraines, low back pain and other t ypes of pain ( Cancer.net, 2012). All of these pains require treatment, but often patients are worried about taking large amounts of analgesics, and may not reveal the extent of their problems. Fullen et al( 2006) point within schools of both medicine and nursing the amount of time spent teaching students about pain relief varies considerably, which will contribute to a patchy service when it comes to pain relief, simply because of inadequate training in some areas. This in turn means that more patients suffer to a greater extent than they need do, and also increase time off work and in hospital, at great cost to themselves and to the country’s health service., Chronic pain has been defined as† having pain on a daily basis for more than six months† (Fullen et al, 2006). Cancer is a term used for more than one hundred diseases in which abnormal cells divide uncontrollably and invade surrounding tissues as well as spreading to other parts of the body through such me ans as the lymphatic and circulatory systems. It affects both organs and mechanisms. This multiplicity of possibilities requires very individualised treatment at every stage from diagnosis on through treatment and into survivorship. The Alliance for Cervical Cancer Prevention (2004) describes how a diagnosis can mean a person feels isolated, anxious, angry and depressed. It might well be assumed that once a cure has been achieved all this could be put behind them, but persistent pain is a very real issue in many cases, as could be psychological issues. Some will feel exalted that they have survived such a major threat, but others may continue to see themselves as a victim, especially if there are long term physical differences, as for example if there is the need for a permanent colostomy, or a man becomes impotent. Within the United Kingdom in 2012 it was declared that treatment for cancer is becoming ever more successful (Department of Health, 2012). The cure is not always the fin al end of pain however. The patient and his family have had to deal with the shock of diagnosis, the progress of the disease and then the joy of the